Bachelor Thesis 1: PA Setups and PA Components

This research paper is based on the research of different concepts of public address (PA) as well as the components used. It outlines the different ways of positioning loudspeakers in a venue including the different types of speakers used. This research paper gives information about the basic structure of PA to get the main idea of what it is and how it can be optimised.

It is important to divide the general term PA into electro-acoustic systems (ELA) and public address (PA), the first being for speech only without attention to the direction and the latter being for music where this does matter.

There are multiple concepts of using PA, none of them being the ultimate solution. Depending on the musicians, instruments and venue, different strategies have to be used to reduce issues with loudness, acoustic colour, feedback and distortion. By using line arrays, bass arrays and delay lines, the sound pressure at the front required for the whole audience to enjoy it loud and clear is reduced dividing the sound more homogeneously.

However, loudspeakers are not the only components involved. This research paper also deals with the different parts in the signal chain of the PA equipment. Moreover, even musicians require their own loudspeakers, which is why monitors are almost always required either on stage or with in-ear monitors.


  • 25/3/2017 - 30/6/2017

Supervising tutor: Dipl.-Ing. Franz Zotlöterer